Updated: Mar 12
Our herbalist in Nepal suggested we include black grapes. In searching for information we found the article, Dr Axe - Food is Medicine. The link is included, so we ask you go read it in full there.
One of the reasons why we are interested in black grapes is because of all the attention the skin of dark grapes was getting with regarding the life extension properties of resveratrol. Grapes are well represented in niacin compounds as well. The article below does not discuss niacin, but further below this article, our blog does.
The following article is extraordinarily well written. Please read it in the link below on the site: Dr Axe - Food is Medicine.
Benefits of Grapes Nutrition
With all the talk about sugar these days, many have concerns about the calories and carbohydrates found in grapes, but the benefits of grapes nutrition far outweigh those concerns. Here are just some of great things grapes nutrition provides:
Who doesn’t want to eat foods that will help them have a longer, healthier life? Well, the classic grape may be one of those amazing foods due to the phytonutrients found within them. Resveratrol, which is a stilbene phytonutrient mostly found in the grape skins but also found in grape seeds and grape flesh, has been shown to increase expression of three genes all related to longevity.
Studies indicate that resveratrol content varies significantly with genetic background, but generally, resveratrol totals are lower in the leaves than the skins. (1) That means the skin is responsible for a great deal of grapes nutrition benefits, particularly helping extend life. In fact, some of the longest-living cultures, like those in the blue zones, include grapes in their diets.
2. May Help Reduce Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes
Metabolic syndrome, related diseases and obesity are the most prevalent nutrition-related issues in the U.S. Evidence suggests that polyphenols in grapes and grape products may reduce metabolic syndrome and prevent development of obesity and type 2 diabetes by acting as multi-target modulators with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. (2, 3)
Grapes have been classified as a low glycemic index (GI) food, with GI values ranging between 43–53. However, having a low GI value is not necessarily the same as having blood sugar benefits. Recent studies have shown that grapes, grape juices and grape extracts, due to the amazing phytonutrients found in them, may offer better blood sugar balance, better insulin regulation and increased insulin sensitivity. (4)
Freeze-dried grape powder and grape powder extracts, obtained from red, green and blue-purple seeded and seedless California grapes, were tested for their effects on glucose tolerance and inflammation and showed improved glucose tolerance and reduced inflammation. In addition, grape seed extract may prevent metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and obesity while improving gut health.
3. Loaded with Antioxidants
When cells are exposed to oxidative stress, they easily undergo oxidative damage that leads to a cascade of degenerative processes that can cause numerous diseases. Antioxidants may be the most effective way to control oxidative stress and avoid occurrence of oxidative damage — therefore reducing the risks of health issues and life-threatening disease.
Flavonoids, found in grapes, represent high-antioxidant properties that help reduce oxidative stress. It’s reported that flavonoids, as a result of their metabolic conversion in the human body, may generate large amounts of simple phenolic acids, which have significant effects in scavenging free radicals and improving the action of other antioxidants. Vitamin C and manganese are two important nutrients to note, particularly given that grapes are some of the highest-concentration vitamin C foods around, but grapes are filled with antioxidant phytonutrients that range from common carotenoids, like beta-carotene, to unusual stilbenes like resveratrol. In fact, the number of different antioxidant nutrients in grapes would take awhile to list. Although the entire grape is useful to our bodies, the seed and the skin contain the richest concentration of antioxidants. Because of this, most research has been conducted on grape skin, grape skin extract, grape seed, grape seed extract, or on grape extracts that contain skin, seed and flesh. The flesh of the grape contains approximately 1/20th–1/100th of the total antioxidant capacity of the seed or the skin.
4. Anti-Inflammatory Action
Inflammation is a protective response of tissues against cell injury, irritation, pathogen invasions, as well as mechanism for eliminating damaged cells. If prolonged, chronic inflammation can develop, which is considered to be the main cause of diseases, such as cancer, Alzheimer’s, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, arthritis, autoimmune and pulmonary diseases.
Grapes nutrition polyphenols have been shown to decrease chronic inflammation. As natural compounds, grape flavonoids and proanthocyanidins can target multiple pathways to overcome chronic inflammation and may be more effective than synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs. Those compounds also make grapes some of the best anti-inflammatory foods around. (5)
5. Helps Keep Your Cardiovascular System in Good Shape
The list of cardiovascular benefits provided by grapes is pretty amazing! The cells in our blood need protection from potential oxygen damage. Chronic inflammation in our cardiovascular system can increase the risk for many types of cardiovascular disease. For these reasons, optimal regulation of the cardiovascular system is especially important.
Several studies have shown that consumption of grape products may have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system by enhancing endothelial function, decreasing LDL oxidation, improving vascular function, altering blood lipids and modulating inflammatory process. A recent study demonstrated that consumption of resveratrol-rich grape extract could provide vascular protective benefits in patients with coronary artery disease when compared to the action of a conventional grape extract or a placebo. (6)
6. May Help Prevent Cancer
Another area of special benefit of grape consumption is cancer prevention. The rich supply of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients provided by grapes nutrition can help us avoid the dangerous combination of chronic oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, making this fruit a tremendous cancer-fighting food.
Fiber is greatly needed for a healthy colon, and grapes provide us with approximately 1 gram of fiber in every 60 calories. This antioxidant-fiber combination may be one of the reasons that colon cancer prevention has become more prevalent in health research on grapes. In fact, a study conducted by the Department of Health Sciences at the University of Milan and the San Paolo Hospital in Italy found that natural grape extracts regulate colon cancer cells malignancy. (7)
Researchers have shown that grape skin extract possesses positive chemotherapeutic results against breast cancer. (8) Let’s not forget the raisin, which has been noted for its effect on human colon cancer cells and pancreatic cancer cells by having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. (9, 10)
7. Better Brain Function
Studies suggest that the consumption of flavonoid-rich grape products may have a significant beneficial effect on brain function and the central nervous system. Grape flavonoids, specifically anthocyanins, can prevent neurodegenerative processes both by inhibition of neuro-inflammation and by reducing oxidative stress.
A clinical study demonstrated that 12 weeks supplementation with purple grape juice in the diet may have neurocognitive benefits in older adults with early memory decline. Consumption of grape juice was also found to improve memory functions in older adults with mild memory decline, possibly helping work as an Alzheimer’s natural treatment. (11)
8. Antimicrobial Benefits
Numerous grape phytonutrients have been shown to have antimicrobial properties. These phytonutrients range from common flavonoids like quercetin to less common stilbenes like piceatannol and resveratrol. While more studies need to be conducted, researchers think that they may be able to help us prevent microbe-related problems like food-borne illness. (12)
Grape juice, skin and seed extracts from table grapes have been found to have a strong inhibitory effect against the growth of some bacteria. Alcohol-free red and white wine extracts have been shown to have moderate antifungal activities on Candida albicans. This antifungal activity of grape products has made them attractive for commercial applications, such as skin care products. And the grape flavonoids may play an important role in a healthy gut, ultimately providing beneficial effects in control of weight loss.
The below article in Live Strong is quoted but you are advised top read the entire text.
Like red rapes, black grapes contain vitamins C, B-1 and B-6. Black grapes also contain quercetin and resveratrol. So they are equally good for reducing cholesterol and reducing the risk of heart disease. They also contain substances known as phenolic acids. According to a 2008 study conducted by S.M. Huang et al. published in Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, phenolic acids can protect cells from diabetic neuropathy. This is a complication of diabetes, in which high blood sugar levels damage the nerves.
Both black and red grapes contain resveratrol. Because it is in the skins of the grapes, dark-colored grapes contain a higher concentration than green ones. Resveratrol may help reduce the risk of prostate cancer, boost the immune system and reduce the effects of inflammation. Other foods containing resveratrol include cranberries, blueberries and peanuts. You can also obtain resveratrol as a supplement.
Below is an excerpt from WH Foods. See the entire original article below.
Several grape phytonutrients may play a role in longevity and may provide us with anti-aging benefits. Best-studied in this area of health benefits is resveratrol (a stilbene phytonutrient presently mostly in grape skins, but also in grape seeds and grape flesh). Resveratrol has recently been shown to increase expression of three genes all related to longevity. (These three genes are SirT1s, Fox0s, and PBEFs.) Interestingly, some researchers have shown a parallel between activation of these longevity genes by resveratrol and activation by calorie-restricted diets. (In aging and longevity research, our ability to get optimal nutrition for the fewest possible amount of calories is related to our longevity, and the more we can decrease our calories while staying optimally nourished, the better our chances of healthy aging and longevity.)
Several recent studies on grape extract intake by animals, as well as grape juice intake by humans, suggest that grapes may provide us with some important cognitive benefits. For example, daily consumption of Concord grape juice in a 1-2 cup amount over a period of several months has been shown to improve the scores of study participants on the California Verbal Learning Test. Other studies on animals have shown that excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain can be prevented with intake of grape extracts, as can excessive accumulation of beta-amyloid protein in the hippocampus region of the brain. Synthesis of pro-inflammatory messaging molecules in the brain (including IL-6, IL-1B, and TNF-alpha) has also been shown to be reduced by intake of grape extracts. While large-scale human studies are needed to confirm these potential benefits, we expect that grape benefits for our cognitive health will be confirmed in future research.
NOTE 1: Black grape powder is 3.75% by volume of Super Superfood Reds and 3.37% by volume in Super Superfood Gold.
NOTE 2: While these above are amazing reports, our super superfoods do not include high volumes of black grape. If you are ill, please go to a physician. If on the other hand, you want good health by a cross selection of good nutrition, with an associated long life, our super superfoods are available for you.
Here are more references:
Effect of Black Grape Seed Extract (Vitis vinifera) on Biofilm Formation of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Al-Mousawi AH, Al-Kaabi SJ, Albaghdadi AJH, Almulla AF, Raheem A, Algon AAA.Curr Microbiol. 2020 Feb;77(2):238-245. doi: 10.1007/s00284-019-01827-0. Epub 2019 Dec 5. PMID: 31807847
Bactericidal effect of grape seed extract on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Al-Habib A, Al-Saleh E, Safer AM, Afzal M.J Toxicol Sci. 2010 Jun;35(3):357-64. PMID: 20519844 Free Article
Synergistic interactions between phenolic compounds identified in grape pomace extract with antibiotics of different classes against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Sanhueza L, Melo R, Montero R, Maisey K, Mendoza L, Wilkens M.PLoS One. 2017 Feb 24;12(2):e0172273. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172273. eCollection 2017. PMID: 28235054 Free PMC Article
Antimicrobial properties of black grape (Vitis vinifera L.) peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds. Yadav D, Kumar A, Kumar P, Mishra D.Indian J Pharmacol. 2015 Nov-Dec;47(6):663-7. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.169591. PMID: 26729960 Free PMC Article
The Live Strong article has the following as references:
Resveratrols in Grape Berry Skins and Leaves in Vitis Germplasm www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3634843/
Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3634843/
Anti-inflammatory effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 on a diabetic pancreas. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26800498
The anti-inflammatory potential of phenolic compounds in grape juice concentrate (G8000™) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23517616
Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3916869/
Effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins on tumor vasculogenic mimicry in human triple-negative breast cancer cells. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25684483
Role of oxygen free radicals in cancer development. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8695238
Concord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment www.researchgate.net/publication/40759101_Concord_grape_juice_supplementation_improves_memory_function_in_older_adults_with_mild_cognitive_impairment
Antimicrobial properties of black grape (Vitis vinifera L.) peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4689022/